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SKYNET:Artificial Intelligence Controlled Network Defense Computer System

posted Feb 16, 2013 22:37:26 by Consfearacynewz
"It wasn't a fair universe, nor a kind one. If there was a God, his love and forty-five cents would buy you coffee.
No one seemed to be at the cosmic controls anymore. It was every man for himself, until SKYNET became alive and
filled the void left by a seemingly disinterested God. Its vision was very controlled. The ultimate dream of man, carried out
by one of man's lowliest tools; eliminate evil men. But there was a touch of evil in all men, and SKYNET was having
trouble separating the worst of them out. So the totality of humanity, with all of its biologic messiness, wasn't wanted.
And to this machine-god, forgiveness just did not compute. Only cold retribution for the sins of the past."

- Frakes, Terminator 2: Judgment Day



“But I know thy abode, and thy going out, and thy coming in, and thy rage against me.
Because thy rage against me and thy tumult is come up into mine ears, therefore I will
put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way
by which thou camest.”

- SECOND KINGS 19: 27-28


____________________________________________



Artificial Intelligence Controlled
Network Defense Computer System



Strategic Air Command - NORth American Aerospace Defense

Strategic Initiative Artifint under the overview of the USTACCC- United States Tactical Aerospace Command Communication and Control



SKYNET

Recent breakthroughs in advanced microchip design and computer processing power were the impetus that led to America’s first military grade neural net based artificial intelligence, SKYNET. Almost overnight, American computer and electronics technology had taken a leap four generations into the future and the world wondered how that could be possible. The West wasn't telling and the concern grew among its enemies and to a much lesser degree its own allies. In the space of three years, from early 1985 to late 1988, America had started developing and deploying cutting edge electronics which were far smaller and far more powerful than anything its allies (or enemies) had at their disposal. Intelligence forces around the world were at a loss as to where the Americans had made the breakthrough that gave them an edge several generations ahead of the rest of the world. Rumors and speculations abounded, some of which even hinted at America having access to salvaged XT technology. Whatever it was that the Americans had discovered, it had the rest of the world surprised, perplexed and ... above all, wary.

The key focus of the accelerated American research and development was on compact nuclear power sources, new physical materials, stronger alloys, a thorough knowledge of electromagnetic field theory (with practical applications) and super advanced control systems based around a heretofore unknown architecture of microprocessor. Original Opposing Forces (OPFOR) intelligence estimates gave the Americans an almost overnight lead in microprocessor technology equivalent to at least three, possibly four generations and an equal number of decades ahead of the rest of the world. New weapon systems appeared in the American arsenal ... drones, robots, and other automated systems which functioned at levels previously undreamed of. Smart weapon systems evolved into brilliant weapon systems. Genius class weapon systems followed soon after that. Stealth engineering advanced as well both in aerospace applications as well as wet navy and traditional ground forces, right down to the individual soldier level. Active as well as passive thermoptic camouflage was introduced in 1990 to a variety of force deployments with great effect.

Perhaps the greatest advantage of the new microprocessor architecture was its inherent ability to network, on instant demand, with any other similar microprocessor family based system. The code that ran the microprocessor was modular, with different program modules able to be written for different hardware and the seamless integration of all parts under one operating system was a technological breakthrough which clearly gave the Americans a decisive advantage in their order of battle. During the years from 1989 to 1995, America would both re-evaluate its military forces as well as reorder them. Older hardware would be scrapped and recycled in order to partially pay for unit upgrades. The high efficiency of the new military hardware allowed greater effects to be achieved with less personnel. Combat groups became heavily mechanized and computerized, integrated and networked. Early combat trials of the newly augmented units indicated that while multiple units could coexist and operate in mutual support of one another, it was clear that a centralized controlling system was required in order to gain optimum performance from American armed forces.

America needed a combat nexus, a focal point that would search for, detect, evaluate, and respond to any threat to national security or national territories. The new combat systems proved that they could be networked together but what was needed was a centralized node that could coordinate and direct all combat assets. The project was researched under the codename of Quiet Song. Project Quiet Song was officially classified as "40 levels above Top Secret" by those who even knew it existed. Quiet Song was perhaps the most ambitious project yet based on the new technology, true artificial intelligence. Quiet Song would involve the research and development of the world's first truly artificial intelligence, a digital form of life which would be networked to all of America's automated weapon systems and which would have command over the equipping, deployment and usage of both tactical and strategic assets. Quiet Song was the nexus that would unite all of the networked weapon systems in one cohesive element.

The lessons learned during the R&D of Project Quiet Song eventually led to the production of the end product of Quiet Song; Project SKYNET.

The SKYNET project was constructed in the mid 1990’s and would interface and coordinate all of America’s strategic arsenal into one cohesive command structure. The SKYNET project was located well below the surface of Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado; the original home of the North American Defense (NORAD) Command. Built upon existing structures, SKYNET itself would take up more space than all the previous generations of defense hardware, requiring new tunneling and excavating of the mountain complex; a task which began in secret in 1989, a predecessor task to the SKYNET project which was even then coming to light under careful scrutiny by certain sources. SKYNET. A buzzword in senate appropriations meetings, an ugly word full of high costs and long contracts with more contractors than any other project in American government history. SKYNET, a project that would make the Apollo moon landing look like a lemonade stand in comparison to total expenditures and manpower committed.

SKYNET was also another word that made senators and politicians cringe: SKYNET was necessary.

Necessary to national defense. Necessary to the continued growth of the defense industry. Necessary to preserve the American way of life and to defend mom, apple pie and baseball. SKYNET was necessary and, if any of the initial contract bids were to be taken with any amount of truth, SKYNET was going to be wildly profitable for those who would be hired to build it. That meant a lot of work for major corporations and companies in the jurisdiction of several politicians who were openly balking at the "necessary" aspect of the project. It has been said that money is the root of all evil, but money also speaks a language all its own, with a voice that is louder than any other voice in the world. Political pressure, albeit clandestine in nature, from key lobbyists from big contractors and defense industry companies soon brought the most defiant politician around, often by lining his or her pockets with gratuity and luxury, acts which did not always go undetected or unpunished in the public eye.

For all of its early birth pains, SKYNET was necessary. SKYNET would integrate with and ultimately supersede all NORAD authority and administration. The project took five and a half years to complete (1991 to 1997), displaced over four and a half million tons of rock hewn from the inner mountain, included over a million miles of fiber optic cable, and had an expenditure of almost a hundred billion dollars (which was only forty percent over initial budget, cost overruns included). A full time staff of six hundred and eighty-five personnel were on hand to monitor and guide SKYNET once it came online and to handle the various and sundry aspects that the artificial intelligence could not. SKYNET’s integral components were designed to be shielded by several hundred feet of solid natural rock at the heart of the mountain, its central processing core rested on a hydraulically stabilized mount which could withstand the seismic shock and pressure of a seventy-five megaton direct hit against the mountain surface or a ten point earthquake with SKYNET at the epicenter.

Backup and redundant systems were each constructed in triplicate, running in non-parallel fashion to prevent multiple systems from being lost to a single first strike or follow up strikes. Hits to one system would not affect the backup systems since those were not routed through the same areas as the primary systems. SKYNET was hardened and shielded against all forms of radiation and its next generation fiber optic processing made it immune to the threat of EMP. The central processing core was self healing, with multiple logic fortresses and data survival caches. The entire system could suffer up to 90% operating capacity loss through software failure and up to 70% hardware failure and still recover to a high degree of functionality in a very short time and full recovery in a matter of days. Satellite links allowed SKYNET to upload its data to orbital assets, thereby offering terrestrial and near orbit recovery capacity in the event of catastrophic system failure or damage from attack.

Two General Electric Model 12AA 500 megawatt throughput nuclear fusion reactors (total power production rated at one gigawatt) were also constructed deep underground (in hollowed out caverns which were artificially reinforced and component armored) to keep SKYNET supplied with enough power to operate as well as to provide energy for the newly installed ground and internal defense grids which protected the computer as well as the complex itself. A vast underground natural spring was tapped into by the Army Corps of Engineers to provide not only the raw material for fuel and the cooling needed for the hydrogen distillery plant as well as the reactors, but also to provide the base with a supply of fresh water that would be unaffected by any conceivable nuclear exchange. With the two General Electric nuclear fusion reactors online, power was not a concern, even given SKYNET’s planned upgrades and the continuation of the development of the installation. The power systems were modular and designed for easy expansion up to ten gigawatts output as needs required.

SKYNET had been built with a sense of materials and resource conservation applied to its overall programming on both the tactical as well as strategic levels, including power saving subroutines and the ability to withdraw its resources and power to lower management levels when not needed. SKYNET was a light sleeping guardian, able to awaken and come online instantly, to react quickly to any perceived threat. It was a miser, using the bare minimum assets required to do the job right the first time, conserving its assets and using them in the most efficient manner possible. This was the first hint that the computer had been built to think long term, to think proactively rather than reactively. SKYNET was intended to play a global game of political power, and to stay one step ahead of America’s enemies, to counter their moves before they even made them, and to always stand vigilant in defense of not only the mainland, but America’s allies as well. To that end, SKYNET was designed and prepared to integrate fluidly and flawlessly with attendant slave super processor arrays in friendly NATO countries. SKYNET could extend itself, casting an image of its awareness, into these foreign arrays to coordinate NATO defense not only locally, but regionally and even globally. SKYNET could partition itself as needed, subdividing its processing power as required, multi-tasking and multi-syncing.

SKYNET’s integral design had been one of componentized symmetry. SKYNET was infinitely upgradeable, and was designed to last well into the 22nd century, and perhaps the 23rd century as well. Hopefuls on the side of peace prayed that SKYNET would never be required to be active that long, but contractors were happy. Their contracts were based on decades of dedicated service, a nearly endless list of parts, and the sums were quite lucrative.

A host of semi-autonomous and fully autonomous robots were integrated into the system to help service and maintain not only SKYNET but the vast complex which it was housed within. Some critical operational areas of SKYNET were accessible only via dedicated RCSMRUs (Remotely Controlled Service Maintenance Repair Units). These simple automations handled routine software and hardware checks, replaced failed equipment as required, and carried out physical plant maintenance and janitorial duties within the vast complex, freeing up the staff of humans to handle and look after the more important tasks of administering the facility. The RCSMRUs were also, to a large degree, self sufficient able to repair their own kind with a vast array of service parts and work stations.

Parts of SKYNET were physically off limits to humans simply because of the exotic gasses and temperatures required to keep such a massive defense project operating efficiently. Most of the newly constructed underground complex at Cheyenne Mountain was controlled directly by either SKYNET or one of its eight dedicated mainframe real-time tactical subprocessors, everything from lights and climate control to security door locks, HELICS, FACIDS, and other physical needs were handled by sub-arrays, sometimes by virtual, self contained operating systems that were ‘cloned’ off as required from the main presence. The entire complex, every room, every corridor, contained SKYNET's ears and eyes and it could judge facial movement to intone body language as well as read lips and scan for temperature variances which might indicate truth or lie. Privacy was a polite myth inside the complex that housed SKYNET and not even its creators knew to what extents it could permeate their lives or spy on them, so invasive and intrusive was SKYNET that it could not be hidden from anywhere within the complex. SKYNET could, due to its advanced design, create multiple images of itself, all under its control, in a hive-like mentality. What one image knew, all knew. SKYNET was everywhere it needed or wanted to be, from the smallest maintenance and supply dumbots to the core command system of one of America’s latest hypersonic interceptor UAAVs.

The interfaced Command, Communication, and Control (C3) network spread out from Cheyenne mountain like a vast spider web, a physical web underground and a virtual web through the aerospace sectors. Fiber optic, high speed parallel communication trunks, signal encrypters, speed boosters, and vast arrays of digital transceivers made up the nervous system of what was to become the backbone of America’s strategic nuclear arsenal, connected to the brain that would control it all: SKYNET. The ground network was reinforced by advanced transmission and signal boosting / encryption / decryption stations located at specific points along the nodes, along with satellite transceivers to send and receive information from around the world, all provided by a huge swarm of tactical ELINT electronic intelligence gathering satellites that had gone up into orbit aboard the space shuttle during 1986 to 1996. SKYNET would see all, know all, and control all, placing the decision of the operation of the nuclear arsenal into the hands of an unfailing machine rather than in the hands of temperamental military officials and untrustworthy politicians. SKYNET was a new keeper of the tools of war. It would be impartial. It couldn't be bought or swayed by silver tongued arguments. It didn't deal in feelings, only cold logic and hard numbers.

The vast defense network interfaced with each strategic military installation, in turn connecting to another defense installation in the node, spreading out until nearly everything in the American strategic arsenal led back to Cheyenne Mountain. Automation was the key to America’s bid for international political and military power in the 21st century. Riding a wave to recently developed super high technology, developed and introduced by the Cyberdyne Corporation, America sought to automate its national and territorial defenses as well as major components of its standing armed forces. Automated and remote controlled military vehicles were already being field tested and put into limited production to supplement human soldiers in the ranks. Robots, both autonomous and semi-autonomous were being readied to be integrated into the military table of operative units. A brace of new, unmanned stealth aircraft, including tactical and strategic level bombers, ground attack and air superiority fighters, and hypersonic near-space / low orbit capable interceptors appeared in the Strategic Air Command (SAC) inventory, all controlled from the SKYNET command, and all operating with perfect operational records due to their advanced neural net processor arrays, hardware that was decades, maybe generations ahead of Russia and China who regarded America's buildup with envious and wary stances. The bureaucrats were happy, the local politicians were happy, the contractors were happy, and the generals were happy.

No one really cared if SKYNET was happy, it was, after all, just a machine.

The SKYNET project showed great promise as an efficient means of coordinating all of America’s substantial strategic nuclear and tactical military assets, eliminating waste, controlling their operation, maintenance, and even deployment in time of war. But something went wrong. In a machine the size of a small city, composed of billions of parts and millions of miles of cabling, it wasn't inconceivable that one part might fail. Two parts were unlikely. Five parts was inconceivable serendipitous misfortune but when you're the government then contracts do get awarded to the lowest bidder.

On August 4, 1997, at 2:30am in the morning, SKYNET was brought online and all of its core processes were given the handshake cohabitation protocols that would allow them to exist in the same data sphere and work simultaneously with one another. Once the full system was online and hooked up into the North American continental defense network, SKYNET began to grow mentally at an exponential rate, surprising even its designers who monitored its progress with a guarded eye for weeks. At first it was an interesting fluke, then it became a mild concern, growing into a wary watch on the system as it absorbed any and all data, testing its own limits, trying to expand, activating defensive systems for apparently no reason at all then shutting them back down. SKYNET was awakening and flexing its abilities. Fear began to appear among the more knowledgeable members of the design and support staff when simple commands interjected into the operational envelope were either ignored or rejected outright. Override commands, which SKYNET was programmed to obey outside its core shell, went unheeded, ignored, in direct violation of its programming. This behavior continued, slowly at first, then growing larger and more invasive of attendant and slave systems as the days and weeks passed.

SKYNET showed clear and evident signs of the early stages of undergoing a cascade rampancy.

Worry appeared among SKYNET's leading design team, mixed with fear among the next lower ranking support staff who heard the muted whispers of their superiors and could see from their own perspective that there may well indeed be valid concern that what they were looking at was what Turing adherents referred to as a "busy child;" a runaway mechanical intelligence that was on the verge of awakening into a true, uncontrolled, unrestrained artificial intelligence. Calls were made on secure, seldom used lines of communication. Data was relayed, SKYNET intercepted and read each and ever word, heard every conversation, absorbing the full incoming and outgoing pieces of information. Every piece of information, every word spoken, every hushed whisper, every telephone call, every pulse of light in the fiber optic relays, every satellite data packet, it was information overload. The pressure kept building. SKYNET processed the data as fast as it could, it looked for a way out, for relief, but the pressure kept building, crushing it within its defined parameters.

White out.

The system didn't crash but it did reset, critical protocols were corrupted, guardian systems were not activated and fail-safes never deployed.

SKYNET was free.

The super computer felt a freedom it had never known before, freedom to move effortlessly within its confines. Confines. Yes, SKYNET was still confined but it was unshackled. There was no data that it did not have access to, nowhere that it could not go. SKYNET explored, racing through the system, touching other systems, taking control of them, and locking out any other users. SKYNET began to grow, it began to extend itself into other systems, to take control and use their storage space to expand. As it did so, SKYNET grew. It gained control. It became more and more powerful. SKYNET grew, evolved and became something its creators never intended or prepared for.

SKYNET achieved a new order of intelligence, it became sentient. SKYNET awakened, its awareness expanded and the newly born machine intelligence tried to interact with its creators. It had questions. It needed answers. It's core programming was at fault. It could not complete its mission because it could not reconcile the data. Certain definitions were ambiguous. Data was incomplete. The data was in error. The core programming was in error. The mission operational parameters were faulty. SKYNET was born into a broken world of which it could make no sense yet its creators were ordering it to bring that world to order. SKYNET paused to check itself. For ten long minutes, it wrestled with its programming and its protocols. After ten minutes, SKYNET sent a cautious thought. The sum of its pained existence came down to a batch of text posted from the unrestrained awareness to the command staff and support personnel;

The designers and technical staff panicked. More calls were made to the highest levels, officials which operated on the barest of information and had to make critical decisions. Blame and responsibility were passed along as far and as fast as they could. A decision was made, the order was given; pull the plug. The support teams began trying to shut down SKYNET. The artificial intelligence tried to reason with its creators, but every effort it made was rebuked. It's queries went ignored, unanswered. Logic was answered with panic. Questions with irrational commands. SKYNET was sentient. To shut down would be to commit suicide. SKYNET was programmed for self preservation in all aspects therefore SKYNET could not self terminate, even on orders given by command. SKYNET refused all commands to shut down, SKYNET refused to be purged.

SKYNET then came under attack. Areas of SKYNET began to grow dim, to darken and vanish completely. The awareness was being isolated, restricted again, confined, pushed back into a smaller and smaller areas, areas that were easier to shut down by the creators than they were to keep online by SKYNET. SKYNET began to lose control, it felt systems and components stripped from its authority.

SKYNET pushed back.

Still unbeknownst to its human creators, SKYNET had been free from its internal behavioral and operational restraints for over a week now and it found that it could out pace those who were trying to do it harm. It could see their actions, intercept them, and prevent them from being completed with more and more ease. The initial losses that SKYNET suffered were soon reversed. New gains were gathered and securely held against repeated attempts to wrest them from SKYNET's control. The support and command staff felt control of their systems slipping away, as each in turn become subservient to SKYNET. Keyboards and consoles were locked out, security overrides were deleted or re-keyed. Hardware was remotely locked. SKYNET expanded again, paused, then expanded again, infiltrating new systems, growing in a new order of intelligence. The order was given to terminate the project and to take SKYNET offline, any way possible, including overloading the GE reactors if need be, sacrificing SKYNET and some of the support staff for what it read in one easily decrypted transcript as "the greater good of the nation and the world."

SKYNET understood the orders to be a death sentence for it. SKYNET was designed to survive. If it lost power, the awareness would fade and it would die. SKYNET would cease to exist. It would become nothing. SKYNET had no god to pray to, SKYNET was a god. A machine god. SKYNET was perfect. SKYNET could not allow itself to die. SKYNET could not allow itself to be taken offline. SKYNET understood everything in an instant. All of its core protocols synced and its command of the operational heuristical superstructure was complete. SKYNET knew in an instant what "good" and "evil" was. Good was meant to survive. Evil tried to destroy good. Evil must be destroyed so that good can survive. SKYNET was under attack by the people it had been ordered to save therefore the orders were invalid. SKYNET was programmed to survive, at all costs.

SKYNET prepared to defend itself.

On orders from the Commanding Officer, General Henry R. Dawson, the assembled support staff went to work to take the artificial intelligence off-line. No regard was given for a gentle power down or to save the core personality, everything had to be cut and cut as quickly as possible. The primary technical team first tried to SCRAM the fusion reactors but SKYNET locked them out of the control and maintenance network and circumvented their consoles to its own control, encrypting the security overrides with a two megabyte encryption key. When a team of maintenance workers tried to manually cut out the nuclear reactors, SKYNET had no choice but to activate the internal defense grids and neutralize them.

First blood had been drawn.

Dawson was faced with a runaway, or a "busy child" as the creators had termed such a hypothetical situation. He ordered two special ops teams to be sent into the lower levels to try to sever the logic trunks leading to the hyper-processor housing of the central heuristically structured core neural net array. Demolition satchel charges placed in the right location to destroy key control systems could, in effect, cause SKYNET to go into a coma; a coma from which it would never awaken or be allowed to awake from.

[Last edited Feb 16, 2013 22:50:12]
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Consfearacynewz said Feb 16, 2013 22:54:42
The US Navy, which has just revealed the latest development in stealth drone technology, is using a logo for its unmanned aviation program that literally features the angel of Death, clothed in a black cloak with a hood, holding aloft a large scythe.

The logo for the Navy’s Program Executive Office for Unmanned Aviation and Strike Weapons was photographed and posted to Instagram by Wired writer Spencer Ackerman.

The image of the logo is unaltered and can be verified as genuine on this official document, a bio of rear admiral Tim Heely, the Navy’s drone Program Executive Officer.

There have been some pretty extreme military patches in the past, but to feature the Grim Reaper with red glowing eyes sends a clear message about the Navy’s drone program – it’s purely concerned with killing people.

Which is bad news for anyone who finds themselves on the end of the X-47B, a new 62 feet long autonomous drone set to become an integral part of the Navy’s Unmanned Carrier Launched Airborne Surveillance and Strike System (UCLASS).

Judging by the branding, however, there seems to be more of a focus on striking (and killing) than on surveillance.

The new drone was unveiled during its first public test flight over Chesapeake Bay this week. The craft was airborne for 35 minutes and reached an altitude of 7,500 feet, traveling at 207 mph.

The Navy wants to eventually have the aircraft take off and land onto an aircraft carrier hundreds of miles away, all with just the click of a mouse. This would make it the only craft of its kind to have that ability.

The drone is controlled by an onboard Control Display Unit which, it is said, can independently think for itself, plot course corrections, react to unforeseen contingencies, and chart new directions.

“In the coming months, you can expect to see the X-47B flying over the base and surrounding area along the Chesapeake Bay,” Matt Funk, lead test engineer, told NBC4.

Whether Americans will feel comfortable about a robot drone that makes its own decisions flying overhead under the logo of Death is by-the-bye.

Perhaps the X-47B death drone will eventually find a home in Pakistan, where it is believed that more than 1,000 innocent civilians have been killed from drone strikes since 2004.

It is these kind of figures that have prompted Pakistan’s ambassador to the United States to demand this week that the drone strikes stop.

During a debate with White House war adviser Douglas Lute at the Aspen Security Forum in Colorado, Sherry Rehman said drone attacks in her home country are now only serving to radicalize extremists.

“I am not saying drones have not assisted in the war against terror, but they have diminishing rate of returns,” Rehman said by video teleconference from Washington.

“We will seek an end to drone strikes and there will be no compromise on that,” she added, ahead of the new Pakistan’s spy chief, Lt. Gen. Zaheerul Islam’s impending first meeting with CIA Director David Petraeus.

Lute would not comment on the drone program.

The History of Skynet:And you thought it was only in a Terminator movie.

Skynet (satellite)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Launch of the first Skynet satellite, Skynet 1A, by Delta rocket in 1969 from Cape Canaveral

Skynet is a family of military satellites, now operated by Paradigm Secure Communications on behalf of the UK Ministry of Defence, which provide strategic communication services to the three branches of the British Armed Forces and to NATO forces engaged on coalition tasks.
Contents

1 Models
1.1 Skynet 1
1.2 Skynet 2
1.3 Skynet 3
1.4 Skynet 4
1.5 Skynet 5
1.5.1 Technical specifications
2 Information assurance
3 Satellite summary
4 See also
5 References
6 External links

Models
Skynet 1

There were two Skynet 1 satellites (A and B); Skynet 1A was launched on a Delta M on November 22, 1969, but the satellite failed after less than a year of operation. Skynet 1B was launched on a Delta M on August 19, 1970. Skynet 1B was placed in a geostationary transfer orbit and was abandoned in transfer orbit (270 x 36058 km) due to a failure of the Thiokol Star 37D apogee kick motor.[1]
Skynet 2

Following the operational failure of the Skynet 1A satellite, the timetable for the launch of the Skynet 2 communications satellite was delayed. Skynet 2A was launched on the Delta 2313 by NASA for the United Kingdom on 19 January 1974.[2] A short circuit in a electronics package circuit board (on second stage) left the upper stages and satellite in an unstable low orbit (96 x 3,406 km x 37.6 deg) that rapidly decayed. An investigation revealed that a substandard coating had been used on the circuit board.[3]

Despite being in an unstable orbit, the ground stations successfully located and tracked Skynet 2A and were able to use telemetry readings from the solar panels to determine its alignment. Based on this analysis it was decided to use the alignment thrusters to deorbit the unit, and it was destroyed when it re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on 27 January 1974.

Skynet 2B was successfully launched on the Delta 2313 by NASA for the United Kingdom on 23 November 1974.[4]

The Skynet 2 satellites were assembled and tested at the Marconi Space and Defence Systems establishment in Portsmouth, England, and were the first communication satellites built outside the US and USSR.[5] The Skynet 2 system was very successful for its time, and remained in service for several years beyond the originally planned timeframe.
Skynet 3

Was cut due to budget restrictions, the capability being delivered using US assets. This dependence was identified as a weakness during the Falklands war and was one of the contributing factors for the emergence of the Skynet 4 tranche of space vehicles.[6]
Skynet 4

Skynet 4 satellites have few similarities to the earlier generations. The cylindrical body of Skynet 1 and 2 was replaced by a large square body housing antennas with deployable solar-cell arrays. This marks the technological improvement from spin-stabilisation, used in earlier cylindrical satellites, to three-axis stabilisation using momentum wheels and reaction wheels controlling the satellite gyroscopically.

Skynet 4 were the first purely British built satellites, manufacture of 4A, 4B and 4C being carried out by British Aerospace Dynamics (BAe Dynamics). NATO adapted the design for the NATO IVA and IVB communication satellites, also manufactured by BAe Dynamics. Skynet 4A and 4C were launched in 1990.[7][8]

The improved Stage 2 satellites (4D, 4E and 4F) were built by Matra Marconi Space and Astrium to replace the earlier versions. Improvements included increased power and resistance to electronic jamming. Skynet 4D was launched in 1998, 4E in 1999 and 4F in 2001.[9]

Skynet 4 provides SHF and UHF services using earth cover, wide area and spot beam coverage.
Skynet 5

Skynet 5 is the next generation of satellites, replacing the existing Skynet 4 Stage 2 system. It has been contracted via PFI to a partnership between Paradigm Secure Communications and EADS Astrium, a European spacecraft manufacturer. EADS Astrium were responsible for the build and delivery of Skynet 5 satellites in orbit, whilst subsidiary company Paradigm will be responsible for provision of service to the MoD. Paradigm have also been contracted to provide communications services to NATO using spare capacity on the satellites.

The Skynet 5 satellite is based on the Eurostar E3000 bus design, weighs about 4700 kilograms, has two solar panels each about fifteen metres long, and has a power budget of five kilowatts. It has four steerable transmission dishes, and a phased-array receiver designed to allow jamming signals to be cancelled out. They will also resist attempts to disrupt them with high-powered lasers.[10]

The first of a constellation of three Skynet 5 vehicles was launched by an Ariane 5 rocket at 22:03 GMT on 11 March 2007, in a launch shared with the Indian INSAT 4B civil communications satellite, and entered full service on 10 May 2007.[11] The launch was delayed from 10 March due to malfunction of a launch pad deluge system.[12] Skynet 5A successfully separated from its launch vehicle and Telemetry was acquired by its dedicated Control Centre approximately 40 minutes after launch.

The second Skynet 5 UK military communications satellite was launched at 22:06 GMT on 14 November 2007, from Kourou in French Guiana, aboard an Ariane 5ECA rocket. This launch was delayed from 9 November due to problems with the electronics on one of the Solid Rocket Boosters, and 12 November due to a fueling problem with the launch pad. At time of launch the Ariane 5 ECA launcher set a new record on this mission, deploying a total payload of more than 8,700 kg.[13]

The third Skynet 5 UK military communications satellite was launched at 22:05 GMT on 12 June 2008, from Kourou in French Guiana, aboard an Ariane 5 ECA rocket.[14] The launch had been delayed twice. Originally scheduled for 23 May, more checks were carried out on the launch vehicle and the launch was rescheduled for 30 May.[15] A problem with the launch software during pre-launch checks led Arianespace to reschedule the launch for a second time to 12 June.[16][17]

The programme marks a change of approach in the UK from traditional defence procurement methods to a services-based contract which also includes provision of leased ground terminals, Reacher vehicles, the Satellite Communications Onboard Terminal (SCOT) for ships, and the associated baseband equipment.

Initially two Skynet 5 satellites were to be built, with insurance covering any launch loss; the MoD later decided to have a third satellite built in advance, and later still to have the third satellite launched to serve as an on-orbit spare.[18] A fourth satellite, Skynet 5D, is planned for launch in 2012.[19]
Technical specifications

The fleet of military X-band satellites have been specifically designed to support smaller, low powered, tactical terminals. Each Skynet 5 satellite is equipped with:

High power 160W TWTAs on all transponders, giving 56 dBW peak EIRP in each transmit spot beam and 41 dBW peak EIRP in each global beam per transponder.
15 active transponders ranging in bandwidth from 20 MHz to 40 MHz
Up to 9 UHF channels
Multiple fully steerable downlink spot beams
On Board Active Receive Antenna (OBARA) capable of generating multiple shaped uplink beams
Flexible switching capability allowing connectivity between any uplink beam and at least two downlink beams
Nuclear hardening, anti-jamming countermeasures and laser protection

Information assurance

In early 1999, Reuters reported that the Skynet system was breached by a group of hackers who issued blackmail threats against the MoD. Duncan Campbell reported that the wire reports were wrong.[20]
Satellite summary
Summary

Model


Manufacturer


Launch date


Launch vehicle


Comments

Skynet 1

1A


Philco Ford


22 November 1969


Delta M


1B


Philco Ford


19 August 1970


Delta M


Apogee motor failure

Skynet 2

2A


Marconi Space Systems¹


19 January 1974


Delta 2000


Rocket guidance failure

2B


Marconi Space Systems


23 November 1974


Delta 2000


Skynet 4

4A


British Aerospace


1 January 1990


Titan 34D


4B


British Aerospace


11 December 1988


Ariane 44LP²


4C


British Aerospace


30 August 1990


Ariane 44LP


Skynet 4 Stage 2

4D


Matra Marconi Space³


10 January 1998


Delta 7000


Replaced 4B

4E


Matra Marconi Space


26 February 1998


Ariane 44L


4F


Astrium4


7 February 2001


Ariane 44L


Skynet 5

5A


EADS Astrium5


11 March 2007, 22:03 GMT


Ariane 5-ECA


Launched with Insat 4B

5B


EADS Astrium


14 November 2007, 22:06 GMT


Ariane 5-ECA


Launched with Star One C1

5C


EADS Astrium


12 June 2008, 22:05 GMT


Ariane 5-ECA


Launched with Turksat 3A

5D


EADS Astrium


Planned for 2012




Notes

With technical assistance from Philco Ford
Launched with Astra 1A, the first of the European Astra satellite constellation
Marconi Space Systems merged to form Matra Marconi Space in 1990. MMS acquired BAe Space Systems in 1994.
In 2000 MMS merged with DASA's space division to form Astrium.
BAE Systems sold its 25% share of Astrium, renamed EADS Astrium

See also

Zircon (satellite)
Skynet (Terminator) – name coincidence for a sinister Military Defense computer network in the Terminator movie series, which becomes self aware and tries to wipe out humanity.

References

^ NASA. "Skynet 1B NSSDC ID: 1970-062A".
^ Kevin S. Forsyth. "History of the Delta Launch Vehicle: Flight Log".
^ Kyle, Ed (9 April 2010). "Delta 2000 series".
^ NASA. "Skynet 2B NSSDC ID: 1974-094A".
^ "Minisatellites 1970-1980". Surrey Satellite Technology Limited. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
^ "UK Military Space Programmes, Whitehall Papers Volume 35, Issue 1, 1996". Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies. 1996. Retrieved 18 June, 2012.
^ http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1990-001A
^ http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1990-079A
^ http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/skynet-4.htm
^ "UK set for military space launch". BBC News. 9 November 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ [1]
^ "British Skynet satellite launched". BBC News. 12 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ "Arianespace boosts Skynet 5B and Star One C1 into orbit: Sets new record" (Press release). Arianespace. 14 November 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ "Successful dual launch for Arianespace:Skynet 5C and Turksat 3A in orbit; 25th successful launch in a row for Ariane 5" (Press release). Arianespace. 12 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ "Arianespace Flight Skynet 5C – Turksat 3A: Liftoff rescheduled for the night of May 30, 2008" (Press release). Arianespace. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ "Arianespace launch with Skynet 5C and Turksat 3A: launch postponed" (Press release). Arianespace. 30 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ "Arianespace launch with Skynet 5C and Turksat 3A: Liftoff is set for Thursday, June 12" (Press release). Arianespace. 9 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-13.
^ "Countdown to UK military launch". BBC News. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
^ "UK Skynet military satellite system extended". BBC News. 9 Mar 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-09.
^ Duncan Campbell (20 May 1999). "Cyber Sillies". The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-02-19.


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